Concentrate supplementation on milk yield, methane and CO2 production in crossbred dairy cows grazing in tropical climate regions
Lizbeth Esmeralda Robles Jiménez, Arni Xochitemol Hernández, Mohammed Benaouda, Jorge Osorio Avalos, Luis Corona, Epigmenio Castillo-Gallegos, Octavio Alonso Castelan-Ortega, Manuel Gonzalez-Ronquillo
The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of concentrate supplementation on the production and chemical composition of milk from 12 crossbred F1 dual-purpose cows (½ Bos taurus – ½ Bos indicus) and estimate the emission of CH4, N2O, and CO2 gases. The study included 12 crossbred F1 dual-purpose cows over 60 days of lactation. The cows grazed on 28% tropical native grassland and 72% Brachiaria spp. and Cynodon neumfluensis, supplemented with 0, 150, 300, and 450g of concentrate per kg daily milk production, during three experimental periods of 15 days each in a crossover design. Pasture and concentrate samples were collected and were analyzed for dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber. Milk production (kg d-1) was recorded daily, nitrous oxide (N2O), and emissions from excreta and daily CH4 production were calculated. Results were analyzed with the SAS MIXED procedure. Concentrate supplementation in tropical crossbred dairy cows did not improve milk yield but increased CH4 and N2O production (P < 0.0001) per cow as the concentrate increased in the diet; the Ym factor from the tropical region yielded less CH4 than the IPCC Ym model (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, the calculation of CH4 using specific emission factors for the tropical climate region is better than the IPCC default emission factors in order not to overestimate the CH4 emissions.
AOAC (Association of Official Analytic Chemist) (1990) , USA, pp 1094.
Boadi D, Benchaar C, Chiquette J, Massé D (2004) . 84:319-335
Castillo AR, Kebreab E, Beever DE, France J (2001) A review of efficiency of nitrogen utilisation in lactating dairy cows and its relationship with environmental pollution. Journal of Animal and Feed Science 9:1–32
Castillo GE, Valles, MB, Mannetje L ‘t, Aluja SA (2005) Efecto de introducir Arachis pintoi sobre variables del suelo de pasturas de grama nativa del trópico húmedo de mexicano. Técnica Pecuaria en México 43:287-295
Cochran WG, Cox GM (1992) Notes on the statistical analysis of the results, In Experimental designs, 2nd edn. , Inc., New York, N.Y. pp 42–92.
CVS (2016) Cross-breeding in Cattle for Milk Production: Achievements, Challenges and Opportunities in India-A Review. 4:3. doi:10.4172/2329-888x.1000158
Dale AJ, McGettrick S, Gordon AW, Ferris CP (2015) The effect of two contrasting concentrate allocation strategies on the performance of grazing dairy cows. Grass and Forage Science 71:379-388. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1111/gfs.12185
FAO (2019) Gateway to dairy production and products. Italy. Available online at:
Foresight (2011) London Available online at: attachment_data/file/288329/11-546-future-of-food-and-farmingreport.pdf. Accessed on: May 09, 2019.
García SC, Pedernera M, Fulkerson WJ, Horadagoda A, Nandra K (2007) Feeding concentrates based on individual cow requirements improves the yield of milk solids in dairy cows grazing restricted pasture. 47:502–508.
Garg MR, Sherasia LP, Phondba BT, Makkar HPS (2016) Greenhouse gas emission intensity based on lifetime milk production of dairy animals, as affected by ration-balancing program. Animal Production Science 58:1027. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/AN15586
Hatungumukama G, Sidikou DI, Leroy PL, Detilleux J2009) Effects of non-genetic and crossbreeding factors on dairy milk yield of Jersey x Sahiwal x Ankolécows in Burundi. :794–798.
Hills JL, Wales WJ, Dunshea FR, Garcia SC, Roche JR (2015) Invited review: An evaluation of the likely effects of individualized feeding of concentrate supplements to pasture-based dairy cows. 98:1363–1401.
IDF (2015) A common carbon footprint approach for the dairy sector: The IDF Guide to Standard Life Cycle Assessment Methodology. 479/2015. Brus- sels, Belgium.
IPCC (2006) IGES, Japan.
IPCC (2007) Technical summary. In: Climate Change 2007: . Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 19–91.
IPCC (2013) . T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, and P. M. Midgley, edn. Cam- bridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Jones DB (1931) . USDA Circ. 183:1-21
de Klein C, Eckard R, van der Weerden T (2010) Nitrous oxide emissions from the nitrogen cycle in livestock agriculture: estimation and mitigation. In Smith KA, editor. Nitrous oxide and climate change. Londe: Earthscan 107-142
Ku-Vera JC, Valencia-Salazar SS, Piñeiro-Vázquez AT, Molina-Botero IC, Arroyave-Jaramillo J, Montoya-Flores MD, Lazos-Balbuena FJ, Canul-Solís JR, Arceo-Castillo JI, Ramírez-Cancino L, Escobar-Restrepo CS, Alayón-Gamboa JA, Jiménez-Ferrer G, Zavala-Escalante LM, Castelán-Ortega OA, Quintana-Owen P, Ayala-Burgos AJ, Aguilar-Pérez CF, Solorio-Sánchez FJ (2018) Determination of methane yield in cattle fed tropical grasses as measured in open-circuit respiration chambers. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 258:3–7. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2018.01.008
Lawrence DC, O'Donovan M, Boland TM, Lewis E, Kennedy E (2015) The effect of concentrate feeding amount and feeding strategy on milk production, dry matter intake, and energy partitioning of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows. Journal of 98:388–348.
Ledgard SF, Falconer SJ, Abercrombie R, Philip G, Hill JP (2020) Temporal, spatial, and management variability in the carbon footprint of New Zealand milk103:1031-1046. doi:10.3168/jds.2019-17182
Lovett DK, Stack LJ, Lovell S, Callan J, Flynn B, Hawkins M, O’Mara FP (2005) Manipulating enteric methane emissions and animal performance of late-lactation dairy cows through concentrate supplementation at pasture. 88:2836–2842. doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)72964-7
Makkar HPS (2013) Towards sustainable animal diets. Optimization of feed use efficiency in ruminant production systems. In ‘Proceedings of the FAO symposium, 27 November 2012, Bangkok, Thailand. FAO animal production and health proceedings, no. 16’. (Eds HPS Makkar, D Beever). ( 16:67–74.
Makkar HPS, Ankers P (2014) A need for generating sound quantitative data at national levels for feed-efficient animal production. 54:1569–1574.
Montoya-Flores MD, Molina-Botero IC, Arango J, Romano-Muñoz JL, Solorio-Sánchez FJ, Aguilar-Pérez CF, Ku-Vera JC (2020) Effect of Dried Leaves of Leucaena leucocephala on Rumen Fermentation, Rumen Microbial Population, and Enteric Methane Production in Crossbred Heifers. Animal 10:300. doi.org/10.3390/ani10020300
Muñoz C, Hube S, Morales JM, Yan T, Ungerfeld EM (2015) Effects of concentrate supplementation on enteric methane emissions and milk production of grazing dairy cows. 175:37–46. doi:10.1016/j.livsci.2015.02.001
Niu M, Kebreab E, Hristov AN, Oh J, Arndt C, Bannink A (2018) Prediction of enteric methane production, yield, and intensity in dairy cattle using an intercontinental database. 248:3368–3389. doi:10.1111/gcb.14094
Norse D (2012) Low carbon agriculture: Objectives and policy pathways. doi:10.1016/j.envdev.2011.12.004
MQC (2001) Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, pp 3-27.
Olijhoek DW, Løvendahl P, Lassen J, Hellwing ALF, Höglund JK, Weisbjerg MR, Noel SJ, McLean F,Højberg O, Lund P (2018) Methane production, rumen fermentation, and diet digestibility of Holstein and Jersey dairy cows being divergent in residual feed intake and fed at 2 forage-to-concentrate ratios. Journal of Dairy Science 9926-9940. doi:10.3168/jds.2017-14278
Olmos Colmenero JJ, Broderick GA (2006) Effect of dietary crude protein concentration on ruminal nitrogen metabolism in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 89:1694–1703.
O’Neill BF, Deighton MH, O’Loughlin BM, Galvin N, O’Donovan M, Lewis E (2012) The effects of supplementing grazing dairy cows with partial mixed ration on enteric methane emissions and milk production during mid to late lactation. 95: 6582–6590.
Pacheco D, Waghorn GC (2008) Dietary nitrogen-definitions, digestion, excretion and consequences of excess for grazing ruminants. 70:107–116.
Ramin M, Huhtanen P (2013) Development of equations for predicting methane emissions from ruminants. 96:2476–2493. doi:10.3168/jds.2012-6095
Sanh MV, Wittorsson H, Ly LV (2002) Effects of natural grass forage to concentrate rations and feeding principles on milk production and performance of crossbred lactacting cows. Asian-Australasian 15:650-657.
Santos SA, Valadares Filho SC, Detmann E, Valadares RFD, Ruas JRM, Amaral PM (2011) Different forage sources for F1 Holstein×Gir dairy cows. 142:48–58. doi:10.1016/j.livsci.2011.06.017
Sauvant D, Giger-Reverdin S (2009) Modélisation des interactions digestives et de la production de méthane chez les ruminantsINRA Productions 22:375-384
SAS (1990) SAS/STAT User's guide. [Computer program] 4th edn. Version 6. Cary NC, USA: SAS Institute Inc.
SAGARPA (2016). Escenario base 09-18. Proyecciones para el sector agropecuario de México. Available online at: Accessed on: June 09, 2018.
Selbie DR, Buckthought LE, Shepherd MA (2015) The Challenge of the Urine Patch for Managing Nitrogen in Grazed Pasture Systems. 229–292. doi:10.1016/bs.agron.2014.09.004
Smith P, Martino D, Cai Z, Gwary D, Janzen H, Kumar P (2007) Policy and technological constraints to implementation of greenhouse gas mitigation options in agriculture. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 118:6–28.
Yan TCS, Mayne FG, Gordon MG, Porter RE, Agnew DC, Patterson CP, Ferris DJ (2010) Kilpatrick Mitigation of enteric methane emissions through improving efficiency of energy utilization and productivity in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 93:2630-2638.
Valencia Salazar SS, Piñeiro Vázquez AT, Molina Botero IC, Lazos Balbuena FJ, Uuh Narváez JJ, Segura Campos MR, Ramírez Avilés L, Solorio Sánchez FJ, Ku Vera JC (2018) Potential of Samanea saman pod meal for enteric methane mitigation in crossbred heifers fed low-quality tropical grass. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 258:108–116. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.12.262
Van Lingen HJ, Niu M, Kebreab E, Valadares Filho SC, Rooke JA, Duthie CA, et al. (2019) Prediction of enteric methane production, yield and intensity of beef cattle using an intercontinental database. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 283:106575. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2019.106575
Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB, Lewis BA (1991) Methods of dietary, neutral detergent fiber and non starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. 74:3583- 3597.
van der Weerden TJ, Styles TM, Rutherford AJ, de Klein CAM, Dynes R (2017) Ni- trous oxide emissions from cattle urine deposited onto soil supporting a winter for- age kale crop. 60:119–130.
Wallis De Vries MF (1995) Estimating Forage Intake and Quality in Grazing Cattle: A Reconsideration of the Hand-Plucking Method. Journal of Range Management 48:370-375.
Whelan SJ, Carey W, Boland TM, Lynch MB, Kelly AK, Rajauria G, Pierce KM (2017) The effect of by-product inclusion level on milk production, nutrient digestibility and excretion, and rumen fermentation parameters in lactating dairy cows offered a pasture-based diet. 100:055–1062. doi:10.3168/jds.2016-11600